Board games have been around for centuries. They even predate literacy. Once human beings were able to communicate beyond the basics of conveying elementary needs and movement, board games were developed.
The oldest board game in existence is Senet, a racing game played by Egyptian pharaohs and commoners as early as 3100 BC. It is a racing game, played with colored sticks as dice.
This game was featured on LOST in the episode “Across the Sea”.
You can play an online version of Senet here.